Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The 91st annual Ohio FFA State Convention and Expo is being held May 2nd and 3rd at the state fairgrounds in Columbus. FFA Chapters from across the state will be interviewing, competing, and recognized on stage. A complete schedule can be found here.
A house built into the side of a Virginia hillside on a working water buffalo farm has been named the outstanding single-family home of the year in the 2013 LEED for Homes Awards by the U.S. Green Building Council.“Earthship Farmstead” in the western Virginia town of Stuart, was one of seven projects recognized last month by the U.S. Green Building Council. It was designed by Kaplan Thompson Architects of Portland, Maine. (Jesse Thompson, the lead architect on the project, is partnered at the firm with Phil Kaplan of GBA’s Green Architects’ Lounge.) The house was built by Structures Design/Build.The 3,600-sq. ft. house, which was completed in 2012, includes three bedrooms and an outside terrace nearly as big as the house itself. It meets both the Passivhaus and LEED Platinum standards, the USGBC says. “Earthship Farmstead,” Thompson said, is a reference to the New Mexico Earthships of Michael Reynolds.According to an article about the house appearing in the Wall Street Journal‘s “Mansion” section on May 9, the house was built for David and Liisa Wallace, an English couple who had wanted to leave the Britain and found the 104-acre parcel in rural Patrick County with the help of Ms. Wallace’s brother.The Wallaces wanted a house that disappeared into the landscape, and when viewed from atop its sod roof that’s more ore less what they got. But Thompson said building this insulated, underground structure capable of meeting the Passivhaus standard was very complex. “It got complicated,” he said. Energy-saving featuresAnother challenge was getting enough direct solar gain from a building site that faces east. Portions of the building are underground, but Thompson brought some of the structure away from the hillside and installed large south-facing windows to pull in winter sunlight, a description of the project on the firm’s website says.Because the house is designed to meet the German Passivhaus building standard, Kaplan Thompson says it will use 90% less energy for heating than a conventionally built house and will have a heating budget of roughly $500 a year.Other features listed by Kaplan Thompson:Insulation levels of R-30 in the slab, R-30 in the walls, and R-40 to R-60 in the roof. Insulation is cellulose and water-blown EPS foam.Domestic hot water via rooftop solar panels. The system has electric-resistance backup.Tripled-glazed windows and doors manufactured by Makrowin.Heating and cooling provided by Mitsubishi heat pumps with a total output of 18,000 Btu/hour. Thompson says there are three units, both ducted and ductless, each with a half-ton capacity.An energy recovery ventilator made by Zehnder.A 12-kW photovoltaic array mounted on a barn roof that supplies all of the power for the farm.Environmentally friendly materials, including local white oak flooring, cabinets of Virginia black walnut, American Clay Paint, and local patio stone. Commissioning a house that will lastThompson said the Wallaces were completely uninterested in building a conventional, wood-framed house, and drawn instead to a structure more in keeping with their European roots.“It’s not inexpensive to build like this,” he said. “They wanted a very nice house that also had these technical features. That was one of their prime goals. You’re building a very tough concrete structure; it’s not how American houses are usually built.“They thought American homes were far too flimsy,” he continued, “and they said, ‘We are not having an American 2×4 or 2×6 house where you could put your fists through the walls. We are not doing that kind of house. We want a tough house. We want a house like we would expect at home.” The roof was a major building challengeTo comply with the Wallaces’ request for a roof where sheep could graze, Kaplan Thompson used Lite-Deck steel-reinforced EPS panels as a base and then poured a concrete cap that is 8 to 10 inches thick on top of them. The concrete is waterproofed with a fluid-applied membrane made by Carlisle. All of that is insulated with 4 inches of termite-treated EPS rigid insulation, followed by 18 inches of earth.The Carlisle membrane is protected by an embedded electric field, Thompson said, that can be used to test for leaks over the lifetime of the house. The technology is used in structures such as parking garages to pinpoint leaks in places that can’t be inspected visually.Although the Wallaces didn’t say how much the house cost in total, David Wallace said the roof alone was several hundred thousand dollars, the WSJ reported. It should, however, last for 50 years or more, Thompson said, in part because the steel-reinforced concrete is thermally stable and not subject to freeze-thaw cycles.And as to the couple’s wish to graze their farm animals on the roof, Thompson said engineers nixed the idea.“The engineer said no, no cows,” Thompson said by telephone. “They mostly worried about the punching loads of the hooves and the waterproofing, so they said, ‘Please, don’t actually put cows and sheep on the roof.’ ” (The cow standing on the roof in the photo at the firm’s website is there courtesty of Photoshop).
Let’s say you bring the attic inside the building enclosure by putting spray foam insulation at the roofline (the case with the two furnaces in my previous article on this topic). Now, let’s put some numbers to it. (Yes, we’re going to do math, but it’s just simple arithmetic. I know some of you were hoping for partial differential equations, but you’ll just have to console yourself today by memorizing some more digits of Pi, I guess.)If the attic has a floor area of 800 square feet and an average height of 4 feet, for example, the volume would be 3,200 cubic feet. Divide that number by 50 to find the maximum capacity appliance you could put in the attic, and you get 64,000 BTU/hr.That would be a medium-sized furnace. But you could put only one in this attic. Put two of them up there, and the codes say you don’t have enough air for them. And an 80,000 BTU/hr or 100,000 BTU/hr furnace, neither of which is uncommon in homes, would be right out.One way to get more volume of indoor air for your atmospheric combustion appliances would be to connect the space they’re in to other spaces in the home. You could put a couple of grilles in the wall separating a mechanical room from the conditioned space, for example. The codes specify how you should do that and how big the openings have to be.Another way to get more air is to count infiltration. Again, check the codes if you’re planning to do that. Another method specified in the code is to use a single opening. The image at left shows a basement mechanical room attempting to satisfy the code requirement this way.With both the high-low vents and single opening methods, the building codes specify the amount of vent area required. As with calculating volume when you use indoor air, the vent area required is based on the total capacity of the combustion appliances.Here are the rules for the two-permanent-openings method:1 square inch per 4,000 BTU/hr – vertical ducts1 square inch per 2,000 BTU/hr – horizontal ductsWhen using the one-permanent-opening method, you need:1 square inch per 3,000 BTU/hr – vertical or horizontal ductHow many code violations do you see?Now go back and look at the two photos I opened the article with (at the top of the page). Both use the one-permanent-opening method and would require 1 square inch for each 3,000 BTU/hr of capacity. The first one is a 4-inch-diameter duct, so the area would be about 12.6 square inches. Code would allow it for a maximum capacity of about 37,700 BTU/hr. In other words, it’s probably too small because there aren’t many furnaces that small.There’s still the issue of the tape covering the louvers, of course. And there’s another code violation as well. Combustion air vents are supposed to have a minimum clearance of 6 inches from the front of the combustion appliance.The furnace in the second photo comes closer to meeting code. If it’s a 6-inch duct, it would have an area of 28 square inches and meet the requirement for an 84,800 BTU/hr furnace. If it’s an 8-inch duct, it could meet the requirement for about 150,000 BTU/hr in total capacity. It still doesn’t meet the 6-inch clearance requirement, though.But will it work?Whether any of the methods above will work is debatable and depends on what criteria you use to gauge acceptability. Here are a few pitfalls:Using indoor air still means using outdoor air. Each cubic foot (or cubic meter) of indoor air that gets pulled into a combustion appliance will leave the house with the exhaust gases. When that happens, another cubic foot gets pulled in from leaks through the building enclosure.Air doesn’t always follow the arrows we draw on diagrams. You can put all the vents you want into a mechanical room, but whether air moves in the direction we’d like it to depends on the which way the pressure difference pushes it. Wind, stack effect, and other mechanical systems could cause air to flow the “wrong way.”Bringing combustion air in from outdoors can waste energy and lead to comfort problems. We know the old saw about how “a house needs to breathe” is a myth. Houses need to be able to dry out and they need good indoor air quality. They don’t need extra leaks. It’s the people who need to breathe.Occupants sometimes seal them up because they don’t understand why there’s a hole in their house. It happens, just like they sometimes caulk the weep holes in a brick wall.As I’ve said before, it’s time to put atmospheric combustion appliances on the pile of obsolete technologies. Let them take their rightful place as relics of a bygone era, along with steam engines, typewriters, and slide rules. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, energy consultant, RESNET-certified trainer, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. Check out his in-depth course, Mastering Building Science at Heatspring Learning Institute, and follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. Some older homes, though, have a type of furnace that isn’t made anymore: the natural draft furnace. The photo at left shows what they look like. Notice that there are two places where this furnace pulls in air, and these guys pull in a lot of air. They’re also easier to backdraft, but that’s not our focus here.Where does the air come from?So if you’ve got any type of atmospheric combustion appliance, you need to make sure it gets air for combustion. The two options are:Indoor airOutdoor airLet’s take a look at them separately.Using indoor air for combustionIf you’re going to use indoor air, there’s got to be enough of it inside the house. Two building codes that address this issue are the National Fire Protection Association Standard 54 (NFPA-54) and the International Residential Code (IRC).Both say the same thing about using indoor air for combustion. The space that the atmospheric combustion air can draw from has to have at least 50 cubic feet of volume for each 1,000 BTU/hour of appliance capacity. Using outdoor air for combustionThe other way to provide air for your combustion appliances is to bring it in from outdoors. The standard way to do this is with “high-low vents.” The image at left shows an example. Two ducts are open to this mechanical room in a basement. One of them terminates near the ceiling, the other near the floor.[Image credit: International Code Council]The image at left and the image below are from the 2012 IRC and show two ways to do the high-low vents with vertical ducts. It’s OK for the ducts to pull combustion air from the crawl space or attic as long as those spaces communicate directly with the outdoors. In the first diagram, the low vent is connected to the vented crawl space, and the high vent is connected to the attic.[Image credit: International Code Council]In the diagram at left, both vents are shown connected to the attic. That’s why the furnace in the image at left has louvers in the cover. It allows air from the surrounding space to be pulled in for combustion. This is what we call the standard efficiency furnace. If you buy a new furnace these days and want to get the cheapest one you can, this is probably what it’ll look like. A while back I wrote about the incompatibility of putting an atmospheric combustion furnace in a sealed attic. Most often the attic is sealed by installing spray foam insulation at the roofline, thus bringing the attic inside the building enclosure and turning it into conditioned space (directly or indirectly). The good news is that some installers understand this problem and seek to address it. The bad news is what a few of them do.Combustion air retrofitsThe photo at right is a case in point. The furnace was up in the attic before the spray foam was installed. The homeowner hired a spray foam contractor to improve the building enclosure but the budget didn’t include enough money to change out the furnace at the same time.I don’t know if the combustion air retrofit you see above was done by the spray foam installer or the HVAC contractor, but in either case, this one’s almost certainly not going to work. Here are the main problems:Inadequate duct size. They used a 4-inch flex duct that you usually see on bath fans (which have their own problems), and it ran at least 20 feet to the place where it exited the attic. This would not meet the code requirement for combustion air inlets, as you’ll see below.Poor duct installation. The duct wasn’t pulled tight, further reducing the air flow through the duct.Tape over furnace louvers. The louver area is designed to allow the proper amount of combustion air to enter the furnace. By covering some of them with tape, the installer of this retrofit may be guaranteeing the opposite of what they were aiming for: less combustion air, not more.[Photo credit: Nikki Krueger]The image at left shows a better installation. The duct looks like it’s 6 inches or 8 inches in diameter, and it’s made of rigid metal. Both of those things will allow more air to move through.And that air might even move toward the furnace instead of away from it. Of course, there’s no guarantee of that. As my friend David Richardson likes to say, combustion air doesn’t care which way we show the arrows pointing on our diagram. Air flows from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. Under some circumstances, air might flow out through that inlet rather than in.The need for airNow let’s go a little further. Let’s look at what building codes say is the right way to do it. The image at left shows the burners in a particular type of furnace. When you pull the cover off of this furnace, you could stick your fingers right there in the flames. (I said you could do it. I certainly don’t recommend it, though.)What that means is that the flames are open to the air inside the furnace cabinet. Since we know combustion is the chemical reaction of a fuel (natural gas in this case) with oxygen, there’s got to be a supply of air to keep it going. The air in the furnace cabinet itself would be exhausted quickly, so more air has got to come in somewhere, right?
The Pulse is an interesting camera add-on for Canon and Nikon DSLRs. Essentially, the add-on allows users to control their DSLR camera remotely via smartphone and Bluetooth from up to 100 feet. This will come in handy for many videographers during shoots where timelapse video is needed.Pulse’s interface is well designed and seems to be incredibly easy to navigate through. It uses USB to connect to the camera, which is compatible with most Canon and Nikon DSLR cameras. Through Pulse you can control up to 3 pulse-equipped cameras at one time for maximum coverage. You can also use Pulse to control the ISO and Shutter Speed in order to capture sunrise and sunset timelapse videos.The Pulse app is going to be available for free on both iPhone and Android devices.Seeking: $50,000 USD3. PhoneDrone Ethos It may sound crazy, but when you’re in a pinch, the latest smart phones can actually capture footage high quality enough that it can be mixed in with cinema footage. Both iPhone and many Android smart phones can capture video in 4k, so your phone is a real option for you. With that in mind — if you don’t have thousands of dollars to purchase a high-end drone, then the PhoneDrone Ethos could be a nice solution for you.This small drone is compact, lightweight, and compatible with both iPhone and Android. A lot of people might be hesitant to send their phone 100 ft. in the air, but they need not worry. The PhoneDrone comes with a backup system to bring your device home in one piece. Your phone is also in a Protective Universal Mount case, which keeps your phone safe and waterproofed.Seeking: $100,000 USDGot any Kickstarter campaigns we should know about? Let us know in the comments below! The search for “the next big thing” in video gear never stops. Here are a few contenders for the title that are currently raising cash on Kickstarter.With video gear technology advancing so rapidly these days, people are constantly on the hunt for the next big thing. Trying to find tech that’s worth your time and money can be overwhelming, but Kickstarter is always a great place to look. Here are three campaigns that we believe are worth some time and money.1. Hercules Camera Motion Control System Project Premise: With the Hercules, Rollocam has developed the World’s Smallest Camera Motion Control System. This patent pending technology will work with cameras up to 20 pounds, so users can attach anything from a smart phone to a RED SCARLET.The small (but robust) design of the Hercules allows users to store it in something as small as a shirt pocket, and the system itself can be assembled in a matter of seconds. Another great aspect of the Hercules is it’s ability to provide steady camera movement on any flat surface without the need of tracks.Hercules is currently at the tail end of its campaign and had been seeking to obtain at least $25,000 in funding. They have eclipsed that number and are sitting north of $250,000. While many of the premium rewards have been spoken for, there are plenty of the standard rewards, which gets you a Hercules for $50 less than the suggested retail price.Seeking: $25,000 USD2. Pulse Wireless DSLR Control
The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), probing alleged financial irregularities in construction and procurement works related to the Commonwealth Games, has directed all agencies concerned to submit their reports by the month-end.Official sources said a reminder has recently been issued to Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), Delhi Development Authority (DDA) and Public Works Department (PWD) in this regard.The move came after Central Vigilance Commissioner P J Thomas objected to the “lackadaisical approach” and continuous delay by agencies in submitting replies to the queries raised by the anti-corruption watchdog, they said.”We have issued reminders to all the agencies and directed them to submit replies. They have been told to give point-wise answers to our queries by the end of October,” a senior CVC official said.He said, based on their replies, the CVC will give its findings or final report to a committee formed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh headed by former Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India V K Shungloo.”All the Chief Vigilance Officers (CVOs) in the concerned organisations have been asked specifically to pursue the matter,” the officer said.An analysis by Chief Technical Examination Wing of CVC has found alleged financial and administrative irregularities in 16 construction and procurement projects.Six of them are being done by PWD, three by MCD, two each by CPWD, DDA, NDMC and one by RITES, a Government of India Enterprise, the CVC report said.According to the report, “Almost all the organisations executing works for Commonwealth Games have considered inadmissible factors to jack-up the reasonable price to justify award of work at quoted rates citing urgent or emergent circumstances.”advertisementThe CVC has written a letter of complaint to CBI asking for a probe into alleged criminal conspiracy by unknown MCD officials in granting work for upgradation of street lighting in the national capital.Meanwhile, the agency has also asked the CWG Organising Committee and the Sports Ministry to keep a sample of each items of the equipment and props hired from foreign suppliers for the Games venues ready for its inspection.
March 10, 2008 We continue our series of reports about the installation of a set of solar panels that will provide power for lighting in the visitors parking lot and for the visitors path from the parking lot to the entrance of the visitors center. [See prior reports from 2/18 through 3/3/08]. The frame to hold the solar panels has been completed and utilities manager Scott Riley and crew Brendan Scott install the first panel. We continue our series of reports about the installation of a set of solar panels that will provide power for lighting in the visitors parking lot and for the visitors path from the parking lot to the entrance of the visitors center. [See prior reports from 2/18 through 3/3/08]. The frame to hold the solar panels has been completed and utilities manager Scott Riley and crew Brendan Scott install the first panel. [Photo: Amber Klatt & text: sa] Construction crew David Ledbetter and Brendan tighten the panels to the steel frame. The top of the Crafts III Visitors Center is visible in the background. Arizona State University, under the leadership of Program Manager William Shisler, has awarded Arcosanti this gift of solar panels from their Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory. [Photo: Scott Riley & text: sa] Our site electrician Dr. Sparks, in an interview with BigBug Canyon Country News reporter Bruce Colbert: “The real coup was getting the eight solar panels. Arizona State University Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory donated the solar panels to us. The ASU PTL tests the paenls for their wattage capacity, heat and humidity durability and basically put the panels through the wringer to see how they stand up, then they gave them to us.” We send a very big THANK YOU to William Shisler and the ASU Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory. Report continues on 3/13/08. [Photo & text: sa]
If your dog is outside make sure that it always has an adequate supply of fresh clean water and a place to shelter from the sun. If possible, bring outside dogs inside on hot days. Dog walkers should be aware than on a hot day of 25ºC with little wind and low humidity the paving and tarmac can reach a scorching 52ºC. Dog walkers should consider the “5 second rule” – this is a simple test where you place the back of your hand on the pavement. If you cannot hold it for five seconds then it’s too hot to walk your dog. Dogs paws are just as sensitive as human feet and susceptible to getting painfully burned even on days that don’t appear overly hot. Older and obese dogs, as well as dogs with medical problems should be kept inside if possible. Snub-nosed such as Bulldogs, Pugs, Boston Terriers, Lhasa Apsos, and Shih Tzus can also be susceptible to hot weather problems and should be watched for signs of overheating. The best time for walking or playtime with your dog is in the cool of the early morning or evening, but never after a meal or when the weather is very hot and humid as dogs can dehydrate very quickly. ShareTweet Cars can be death traps for dogs, even with the windows open. A car can go from comfortable to oven-like in minutes, so never leave your dog alone in a car. And don’t think that a cloudy day or parking in the shade reduces the risks. The sun moves during the day and clouds can actually magnify the heat. If you are taking your dog along in the car for a long trip, always carry a container of cool water for him. Bringing your dog to the beach is fine, as long as you can ensure he will have shade when he needs it and plenty of clean, fresh water. If your dog likes to swim in the sea, be sure to wash him off with fresh water as soon as possible as salt water can be rough on the coat and skin. Summer also brings dangers in the form of insecticides, weed sprays, and snail baits, to name a few, so watch out for these hazards in gardens and on your walks. Tips for keeping your dog cool in the summer heat was last modified: July 2nd, 2019 by John2John2 Tags: DERRY City and Strabane District Council is advising dog owners to look after their pets in the summer heat.A spokesperson said: “Summers here, so don’t forget that dogs suffer from the same problems as ourselves in hot weather – dehydration, overheating, and even sunburn. “If you keep a few things in mind and take action early, you and your dog can have a great summer! cool waterdehydrationDerry and Strabane CouncilTips for keeping your dog cool in the summer heat
An Air Canada plane flown by overtired pilots nearly lands on a taxiway in San Francisco in 2017. The rules are strict. The Air Canada Flight Operations Manual, for instance, says a pilot who wants to rest must notify the co-pilot and a flight attendant. The pilot can sleep for no more than 40 minutes, and must wake up at least half an hour before the descent for landing. They get the first 15 minutes after the nap to fully awaken, during which they can’t resume actually flying the plane, unless they need to help deal with an emergency.Consumers’ opinionsAs consumer opinion experts, we have conducted a series of studies to see what members of the public think about letting pilots use this CRIP procedure to nap in the cockpit. In general, people are less willing to fly when they know a pilot might be allowed to sleep at the controls, and women are less willing than men. In our research, we find that this is mostly attributed to fear, because they don’t understand the benefits of pilot naps. Some of our earlier work has shown that when consumers understand the value of a new procedure, they’ll feel better about it. It seems likely that explaining to people how better-rested pilots makes a flight safer could help more people feel comfortable flying in a plane where the CRIP procedure is allowed.What do pilots think?In a follow-up study, we asked pilots what they thought about being allowed to rest in the cockpit during flight—and they were much more enthusiastic than nonpilots. Seventy percent of pilots favored allowing CRIP. On average, all participants who completed the survey felt that naps of 45 minutes should be approved, which was closely related to the 40 minutes suggested by scientific evidence. They also recognized the need for the pilot to be awake at least 30 minutes before beginning the descent to landing. Overall, the participants thought there were very few potential problems with CRIP and said it would be useful.However, some pilots did express worry about unintended consequences of CRIP implementation. The airlines, knowing that pilots could take naps during the flight, might be tempted to impose more rigorous flight schedules that would eliminate any benefits derived from CRIP. Lastly, participants commented on how this procedure is already being used by international carriers such as Air Canada and Qantas with success. So far, those companies’ crews have not registered widespread complaints about abuse of scheduling practices, and none of the survey respondents who fly for those airlines complained about this potential problem.Will the US allow it?It is hard to say whether the FAA would ever move to let U.S. pilots nap in the cockpit. The scientific research provides empirical evidence as to its advantages, and while consumers are somewhat hesitant, pilots seem very supportive of it.What is clear is that fatigue in the cockpit remains a threat to the aviation industry worldwide. Given the scientific evidence supporting CRIP to counter fatigue, clearly there is value in considering how it could improve aviation safety. Perhaps it’s time to listen to the pilots we trust to fly these airplanes and let them rest when they need to—within reason, and so they can fly more safely. Explore further Resting in the cockpitIt’s widely known that a short nap can improve a pilot’s alertness. Some planes, such as those commonly used on long international flights, have beds their pilots and other crew can use, but smaller planes don’t have the space. Only flights that are longer than eight hours require an additional pilot to be on board so one pilot at a time can rotate out for rest. On shorter flights, U.S. regulations expect both pilots to remain alert for the entire length of the flight, without any chance for rest during the flight.Some countries, including Canada and Australia, allow for pilots to nap in the cockpit. In an example from China, a pilot was caught napping and faced disciplinary action for napping in the cockpit. The official procedure to allow for pilots to nap in the cockpit is called “controlled rest in position.” CRIP has established policies and procedures to allow pilots to rest. Provided by The Conversation Airline pilots are often exhausted. An extreme example happened in 2008, when a pilot and a co-pilot both fell asleep at the controls, missing their landing in Hawaii—earning pilot’s license suspensions as well as getting fired. More recently, overtired pilots came very close to landing on top of another airplane at San Francisco International Airport in 2017. It’s not uncommon for a pilot for a major commercial airline to, for instance, start work in Florida at 5 p.m., with her first flight departing an hour later for a five-hour trip across the country, arriving in California just after 8 p.m. local time. Then she might get a short break and fly a 90-minute short-hop flight to to another California city. When she lands from this second flight, she has spent six and a half hours of the last nine in the cockpit. She is also three time zones from where she started work, and her body thinks it’s 2 a.m. There’s no doubt she’s tired—and she’s lucky not to have encountered any schedule adjustments for aircraft maintenance or weather delays.The airline industry and the government agency that regulates it, the Federal Aviation Administration, have taken steps to reduce pilot fatigue, but many pilots and others remain worried that two pilots are required to remain awake and alert for the entire flight, though one or both may be dealing with symptoms of fatigue. One possible suggestion is letting pilots take brief naps in the cockpit. As researchers of consumer opinions about the airline industry, we’ve found that the American public is wary of this idea, but may feel better about it once they’ve heard an explanation of how it actually makes their flights safer.Limiting pilots’ work timePilot fatigue can be difficult to predict or diagnose—especially since tired pilots usually manage to take off, fly and land safely. Even when something goes wrong, accident investigators may have little evidence of fatigue, except perhaps the sound of someone yawning on cockpit audio recordings.In 2014, the FAA imposed the first new pilot-rest rules in 60 years, limiting overall on-duty time and flight hours per day depending on when a pilot’s shift starts. The rules also established a process by which pilots can report fatigue without being disciplined by their airlines or the government. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Pilots have reported issues in US with new Boeing jet Citation: Pilots sleeping in the cockpit could improve airline safety (2019, June 4) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-cockpit-airline-safety.html Airline pilots are often exhausted. Credit: christinarosepix/Shutterstock.com This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.
Published on SHARE SHARE SHARE EMAIL December 07, 2018 road transport The pace of constructing roads is likely to slow down to the levels of FY18 or even below as more than 340 projects are stuck at the pre-awarding stage without having received the appointed date, CARE said in a report. Nearly half the projects are reportedly under the Bharatmala scheme.The report also stated road constructions may peak in the second half of the current fiscal due to the elections.The limited availability of funding for new projects as well as National Highway Authority of India’s (NHAI) slow progress, on land acquisition for awarding new projects under EPC model and hybrid annuity model (HAM), will lead to a slowdown in road construction pace, it added.“The overall pace of construction is expected to decline in FY20 on account of funding shortage for new projects. Funding will be constrained by the limited number of banks which are in a position to lend outside the Preventive Corrective Action (PCA) framework. Further, the tight liquidity situation in the non-banking financial companies (NBFC) space will constrain future lending. The budgetary support may not be able to compensate for this shortfall,” the report noted.According to CARE’s analysis, there was a slow down in the construction pace to 23 km per day (in comparison to 27 km per day for FY18) for the first in 7 months of the current financial year due to the monsoons and seasonal disruption.The report said that the following four months of FY19 the pace could peak at 30-32 km per day.It, however, did not specify the reason for the sudden increase in construction pace. Sources said that the upcoming elections are likely to increase the pace of construction.CARE expects the budgetary expenditure, for the development of roads and highways, in the current fiscal to be higher than the allocation of Rs 1,20,557 crore; taking the upcoming elections into consideration.This, in turn, may lead to a higher outgo for land acquisition to speed-up the awarding of projects.The government has been trying to monetize the existing road projects to meet the excess capital requirements. This is to help fund new projects and the first bundle of highways under the toll-operate-transfer (TOT) model. Although the model has fetched the government Rs. 9,861 crore (1.5 times more than the estimate), CARE analysts believe, “The scope to raise funds through this medium may be short-term and has limited prospect as the number of attractive road projects that can be bundled and offered to the investors is limited.”Land acquisitionWhile the government has set high targets for the constructions of highways and new projects award, the NHAI’s progress in land acquisitions has been stalled due to a sharp rise in the average cost of land acquisition by around 300 per cent over the last 4 years on an average. Experts point out that the construction pace, of 30-32 km per day, is still far behind the government’s target of 45 km per day for this fiscal. The highways construction target for FY19 has been set at 16,418 km, which is 67 per cent higher than the result achieved in FY18, CARE noted. So far a little over 9800 km of National Highways has been constructed, it added. Representative image – The Hindu COMMENTS COMMENT